Lincoln Nautilus Manuals

Lincoln Nautilus: Rear Drive Axle/Differential / Rear Drive Axle and Differential. Diagnosis and Testing

Lincoln Nautilus 2018-2022 Service Manual / Chassis / Driveline / Rear Drive Axle/Differential / Rear Drive Axle and Differential. Diagnosis and Testing

Symptom Chart(s)

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).

Symptom Chart: Differential

  Symptom Chart - Differential


Condition Actions
Axle overheating   GO to Pinpoint Test A
No torque available at the rear wheels   GO to Pinpoint Test B
Check AWD system fault message on message center   GO to Pinpoint Test B
Yellow or green or milky axle lubricant in low mileage vehicles   GO to Pinpoint Test C
Lubricant leaking from the pinion seal, halfshaft oil seals, housing joints, clutch motor or RDU speed sensor   GO to Pinpoint Test D

Symptom Chart: NVH

  Symptom Chart


Condition Actions
Axle howling or whine – rear axle   GO to Pinpoint Test E
Driveline clunk - loud clunk when shifting from REVERSE to DRIVE   GO to Pinpoint Test F
Driveline clunk — occurs as the vehicle starts to move forward following a stop   GO to Pinpoint Test G
Grinding, popping or chattering – noise from the rear axle when the vehicle is turning   GO to Pinpoint Test H
Grunting — normally associated with a shudder experienced during acceleration from a complete stop   GO to Pinpoint Test I
Noise isolated to the RDU using normal NVH diagnostics   GO to Pinpoint Test J
Driveline shudder – occurs during acceleration from a slow speed or stop   GO to Pinpoint Test K

Global Customer Symptom Code (GCSC) Chart

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).


Symptom Action
Start/Run/Move > Running > Overheats > Always GO to Pinpoint Test A
Start/Run/Move > Moving > 4 x 4 Function > Inoperative GO to Pinpoint Test B
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Consumption GO to Pinpoint Test A
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Visible Leak GO to Pinpoint Test A
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Visible Leak GO to Pinpoint Test D
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Visible Leak GO to Pinpoint Test E
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Contamination GO to Pinpoint Test A
Start/Run/Move > Fluids > Axle > Contamination GO to Pinpoint Test C
Start/Run/Move > Noise > Moving/Driving > Always GO to Pinpoint Test E
Start/Run/Move > Noise > Moving/Driving > Always GO to Pinpoint Test F
Start/Run/Move > Noise > Moving/Driving > Always GO to Pinpoint Test G
Start/Run/Move > Noise > Moving/Driving > Always GO to Pinpoint Test H
Start/Run/Move > Noise > Moving/Driving > Always GO to Pinpoint Test J
Start/Run/Move > Vibration > Moving/Driving > Intermittent GO to Pinpoint Test I
Start/Run/Move > Vibration > Moving/Driving > Intermittent GO to Pinpoint Test K

Pinpoint Tests


PINPOINT TEST A: AXLE OVERHEATING

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Axle lubricant low
  • Incorrect or contaminated lubricant type
  • Internal gear wear or damage
A1 CHECK AXLE LUBRICANT LEVEL
  • Check the lubricant level.

Is the lubricant level low?
Yes
REFER to: Differential Fluid Level Check (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, General Procedures).
No GO to A2

A2 CHECK AXLE CONDITION
  • Inspect the axle for damage.
  • Inspect axle lubricant.

Was damage found?
Yes Repair as necessary. Clean and refill the axle to specification as necessary.
REFER to: Specifications (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Specifications). Install new axle assembly as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST B: NO TORQUE AVAILABLE AT THE REAR WHEELS

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • AWD system fault
B1 CHECK AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) SYSTEM FAULT MESSAGE ON MESSAGE CENTER
  • Check AWD system fault message on message center.

Is there a AWD system fault message on the message center?
Yes GO to B2
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

B2 CHECK AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) SYSTEM OPERATION
  • Check AWD system operation.

Is the AWD system operating?
Yes Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.
No

PINPOINT TEST C: YELLOW OR GREEN OR MILKY AXLE LUBRICANT IN LOW MILEAGE VEHICLE

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Damaged axle housing
  • Damaged axle vent
C1 INSPECT AXLE HOUSING AND VENT
  • Inspect axle housing and vent for damage or leaks.

Was any damage or leaks found?
Yes Repair as necessary.
No Refer to Axle Fluid Analysis in this section.

PINPOINT TEST D: LUBRICANT LEAKING FROM THE PINION SEAL, AXLE SHAFT OIL SEALS OR SUPPORT ARM TO THE HOUSING

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Vent
  • Damage in the seal contact area or dust slinger on the pinion flange dust shield
D1 INSPECT AXLE VENT
  • Inspect axle housing vent for blockage.

Was blockage found?
Yes Clean the axle housing vent.
No GO to D2

D2 INSPECT THE PINION SEAL, AXLE SHAFT OIL SEALS AND DUST SLINGER
  • Inspect for damage to seal contact area or dust slinger.

Was any damage found?
Yes Install a new pinion flange and pinion seal.
REFER to: Drive Pinion Flange (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
REFER to: Drive Pinion Seal (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation). Install a new halfshaft seal and/or the pinion seal if damage is found.
REFER to: Rear Halfshaft Seal (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation). If housing or clutch motor leakage found, replace RDU
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation). If leaking from RDU speed sensor found, install a new speed sensor.
REFER to: Rear Drive Unit (RDU) Speed Sensor (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No The system is operating correctly at this time.

PINPOINT TEST E: AXLE HOWLING OR WHINE

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Axle lubricant low
  • Axle housing damage
  • Damaged or worn differential and gear assembly
E1 CHECK THE LUBRICANT LEVEL
  • Check the lubricant level.

Is the lubricant level low?
Yes Fill the axle to specification.
REFER to: Differential Fluid Level Check (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, General Procedures).
No GO to E2

E2 INSPECT AXLE HOUSING FOR DAMAGE
  • Inspect axle housing for damage.
  • Inspect the rear differential subframe bushings.

Was any damage found?
Yes Install a new axle assembly as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation). Install a new rear subframe as necessary.
REFER to: Rear Subframe - AWD (502-00 Uni-Body, Subframe and Mounting System, Removal and Installation).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST F: DRIVELINE CLUNK- LOUD CLUNK WHEN SHIFTING FROM REVERSE TO DRIVE

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Axle lubricant level
  • Excessive backlash in the axle
F1 CHECK THE LUBRICATION LEVEL
  • Check the lubricant level.

Is the lubricant level low?
Yes Fill the axle to specification.
REFER to: Differential Fluid Level Check (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, General Procedures).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST G: DRIVELINE CLUNK- OCCURS AS THE VEHICLE STARTS TO MOVE FORWARD FOLLOWING A STOP

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Loose rear axle mount
G1 CHECK FOR LOOSE BOLTS.
  • Check for loose bolts.

Are any bolts loose?
Yes Tighten to specifications.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST H: GRINDING, POPPING OR CHATTERING- NOISE FROM THE REAR AXLE WHEN THE VEHICLE IS TURNING

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Incorrect or contaminated lubricant
  • Damaged or worn differential (differential side gears and pinion gears)
  • Damaged RDU clutch - discs fused from two wheel or extended front to rear differentiation
  • Damaged halfshaft or halfshaft circlip.
H1 CHECK AXLE CONDITION
  • Inspect axle lubricant.

Was damage found?
Yes Drain and refill with the specified rear axle lubricant as necessary.
REFER to: Differential Draining and Filling (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, General Procedures).
No GO to H2

H2 INSPECT THE HALFSHAFT OR HALFSHAFT CIRCLIP
  • Inspect the halfshaft or halfshaft circlip.

Was any damage found?
Yes Install halfshaft or halfshaft circlip as necessary.
REFER to: Rear Halfshaft (205-05 Rear Drive Halfshafts, Removal and Installation).
No GO to H3

H3 INSPECT THE DIFFERENTIAL
  • Inspect the differential and the components of the differential.

Was any damage found?
Yes Install a new axle assembly as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST I: GRUNTING- NORMALLY ASSOCIATED WITH A SHUDDER EXPERIENCED DURING ACCELERATION FROM A COMPLETE STOP

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Loose rear axle mount bolts
  • Loose suspension fasteners
I1 CHECK FOR LOOSE BOLTS
  • Check for loose bolts.

Are any bolts loose?
Yes Tighten to specifications.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No The system is operating correctly at this time.

PINPOINT TEST J: NOISE ISOLATED TO THE RDU (REAR DRIVE UNIT) USING NORMAL NVH (NOISE, VIBRATION AND HARSHNESS) (NOISE, VIBRATION AND HARSHNESS) DIAGNOSTICS

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Internal wear or damage
J1 CHECK AXLE CONDITION
  • Inspect axle lubricant.

Was damage found?
Yes Drain and refill with the specified rear axle lubricant as necessary.
REFER to: Differential Draining and Filling (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, General Procedures).
No GO to J2

J2 INSPECT THE DIFFERENTIAL
  • Inspect the differential and the components of the differential.

Was any damage found?
Yes Install a new axle assembly as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.

PINPOINT TEST K: DRIVELINE SHUDDER- OCCURS DURING ACCELERATION FROM A SLOW SPEED OR STOP

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential - Component Location (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Description and Operation).

Possible Sources

  • Axle mispositioned
  • Loose axle bolts
  • Driveline angle
K1 CHECK THE AXLE MOUNTS AND THE REAR SUSPENSION FOR DAMAGE OR WEAR
  • Check the axle mounts and the rear suspension for damage or wear.

Was wear or damage found?
Yes Repair as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No GO to K2

K2 CHECK THE REAR AXLE FOR LOOSE BOLTS
  • Check the rear axle for loose bolts.

Were any bolts loose?
Yes Tighten the bolts as necessary.
REFER to: Axle Assembly (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).
No GO to K3

K3 CHECK FOR CORRECT DRIVELINE ANGLES
  • Check for correct driveline angles.

Are the driveline angles correct?
Yes Inspect the vehicle for any other symptoms related to the axle.
No Repair as necessary.


Axle Fluid Analysis

The appearance of milky or yellow or green axle fluid in early mileage axles is a result of yellow marking compound used at the assembly plant to verify gear mesh contact pattern. The marking compound within the fluid will darken some over time. The milky fluid appearance will diminish and cause no harm and does not require a fluid change.

Analysis of Leakage

Clean up the leaking area enough to identify the exact source.

A plugged RDU housing vent can cause excessive pinion seal lip wear due to internal pressure buildup.

Verify the RDU lubricant level is at least 3-5 mm (1/8-3/16) below the bottom of the fill hole.

Axle Vent

A plugged vent will cause excessive seal lip wear due to internal pressure buildup. If a leak occurs, check the vent fitting or hose assembly. If the vent cannot be cleared, install a new vent.

Drive Pinion Seal

Leaks at the drive pinion seal originate from the following causes:

  • Damaged seal
  • Worn seal journal surface

A new drive pinion seal must be installed if any of these conditions exist.

  • The drive pinion seal can be torn, cut or gouged if it is not installed correctly. The spring that holds the drive pinion seal against the pinion flange may be knocked out and allow fluid to pass the lip.
  • Metal chips trapped at the sealing lip can cause oil leaks. These can cause a wear groove on the drive pinion flange and result in pinion seal wear.
  • When a seal leak occurs, install a new drive pinion seal and check the vent to make sure it is clean and free of foreign material.

Replace the drive pinion seals as necessary,
REFER to: Drive Pinion Seal (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).

Drive Pinion Nut

On some high-mileage vehicles, oil may leak through the threads of the drive pinion nut. INSTALL a new drive pinion nut as necessary.
REFER to: Drive Pinion Flange (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).

Differential Seals

NOTICE: When installing shafts, do not allow splines to contact seals during installation or damage to the seals may occur.

Halfshaft seals are susceptible to the same types of damage as drive pinion seals if incorrectly installed. The seal bore must be clean and the lip handled carefully to avoid cutting or tearing it. The seal journal surface must be free of nicks, gouges and rough surface texture.

For information on differential seals,
REFER to: Rear Halfshaft Seal (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).

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